Visual impairment（视觉障碍）carries with it a reduced orrestricted ability to travel through one’s physical andsocial environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have beenestablished. Because observational skills are more limited，self-control within the immediate surroundings is limited. Thevisually impaired person is less able to anticipate hazardous situations or obstaclesto avoid.
Orientation refers to the mental map one has of one’s surroundings and to the relationship between self and thatenvironment. The mental map is best generated by moving through the environmentand piecing together relationships，object by object，in an organized approach. With little or no visual feedback toreinforce this mental map，a visually impaired personmust rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and cluesenable visually impaired persons to affirm their position in Space.
Mobility，on the other hand，is theability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within one’s physical and social environment. Good orientation skills arenecessary to good mobility skills. Once visually impaired students learn totravel safely as pedestrians（行人）they also need to learnto use public transportation to become as independent as possible.
To meet the expanding needs and demands of the visually impaired person，there is a sequence of instruction that begins during the preschoolyears and may continue after high school. Many visually impaired children lackadequate concepts regarding time and space or objects and events in theirenvironment. During the early years much attention is focused on the developmentof some fundamental concepts，such as inside or outside，in front of or behind，fast or slow，movement of traffic，the variety orintersections，elevators or escalators，and so forth. These concepts are essential to safe，efficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings，first within buildings，then in residentialneighborhoods，and finally in business communities.
1. Howcan we increase the visually impaired person’s ability to travelthrough his physical and social environment？
A. By helping him develop adequateorientation and mobility skills.
B. By teaching him to learnobservational skills.
C. By warning him of hazardoussituations or obstacles.
D. By improving his visual ability.
2. Thevisually impaired person’s position in space .
A. is not determined by memory but byphysical landmarks and clues
B. is located in relation to other itemsin his mental map
C. enables him to construct the mentalmap
D. reinforces the mental map of hissurroundings
3. Mobilityskills which the visually impaired person is learning refer to the ability .
A. to travel as a dependent tourist
B. to travel as a pedestrian and apassenger
C. to travel as a pedestrian with acompany
D. to travel within the safe physicaland social environment
4. Inthe passage，the author insists that .
A. visually impaired children go toschool for survival
B. the needs and demands of visuallyimpaired children expand
C. visually impaired children acquirethe fundamental concepts for safe mobility
D. preschool children receive theinstruction in the concepts of time and space or objects and events
5. Whatis the author mainly talking about in the passage？
A. Visual impairment and memory.
B. The visually impaired person’sphysical and social environment.
C. Mental development of the visuallyimpaired person.
D. Orientation and mobility of thevisually impaired person.